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IGNOU Guess > Education > Entrance Exams > Medical Entrance > Uttar Pradesh Combined Pre - Medical Test

Uttar Pradesh Combined Pre - Medical Test

Physics | Chemistry | Botany | Zoology


Section 'A': Measurement of Kinematics

  1. Estimation of percentage error In the result of an experiment.
  2. Dimension analysis: Dimension of physical quantity, M.L.T (temperature). Dimensional balance of any equation.
  3. Motion along any straight line path: Time-displacement, 'time-velocity, and time-acceleration graphs. Inter-relationship among the graphs.
  4. Motion in a plane: Vectors, addition and subtraction of vectors (Laws of Polygon to be used ( ), Graphical deduction has to be emphasized. Multiplication of a vector by a scalar. Uniform motion on a circular path, magnitude of centripetal acceleration and force, centrifugal force does not exist In Inertial frame). Motion under a uniform acceleration along a direction other than that of the initial velocity (Motion of projectile under gravity is Included herein). Interpretation of the vector form of the equations v=u+at and s=ut+1/2at2

Section 'B': Mechanics

  1. Newton's Laws of motion: The first Law (Galileo's Law of inertia) and the third Law (Fl2=F21) are obtained from the second Law (a=F/M). Variable force Impulse (F.Dt) conservation of momentum. Principle of jet propulsion.
  2. Rotatory motion of rigid body: Torque, angular acceleration. Moment of inertia, I=Smr2= torque/angular acceleration, Angular momentum.
  3. Work energy: Derivation of expression for kinetic energy (1/2mv2) and(1/2Lw2) respectively from work done by a force and by a couple. Potential energy for a general acceleration (using the method of area under the curve) for a constant force (e.g., mgh) and for spring (1/2kx2). conservation of mechanical energy. Elastic and inelastic collision (no description) Law of mechanical energy. Elastic and Inelastic collision (no description) Law of mechanical energy in Inelastic collisions.
  4. Universal Gravitation: Motion of planets. Kepler's Laws. Law of gravitation in terms of dependence of force on Central force and Inverse of square of distance (no derivation). Planets orbital motion and time period. concepts of weightlessness. Gravitational field (nt/ kg} and potential (J/kg}. height attained by the projectile. escape velocity .
  5. Simple Harmonic Motion: Pure kinetic motion in terms of projection of uniform circular motion. formula y=Asinwt. magnitude of acceleration is w2 times the displacement. Kinetic description that motion in which the force is k times, the displacement. Relation w2=k/m and T=2p-/m /k, and its uses in (i) Simple pendulum (Oscillation in an ideal spring} time displacement graph, time period, frequency .phase. Total energy in terms of square of amplitude conversion of energy in form of potential and kinetic energies. dissipation and damping.
  6. Forced oscillation and resonance: Elementary concepts of forced oscillations. cases of resonance. examples from mechanics sound and radio etc.

Section 'C': Wave Motion and Sound

  1. Speed of Mechanical waves: Newton's formula V=E/-/d (no derivation for longitudinal waves), Order of magnitude of V In various medias. Application to gases, Laplace's correction, effect of temperature and 'pressure for waves on string V=-/T/m (no derivation).
  2. Progressive Waves: Equation for a simple harmonic progressive waves phase and phase difference. wave front, graphical representation of particle displacement and particle velocity against x and xt. Qualitative picture of pressure variations In longitudinal waves. Intensity dependence on square of amplitude (no derivation).
  3. Reflection and Refraction of waves: Demonstration of characteristics of wave motion with the help of pulse on a string and ripples on water. Mutual independence of various waves in the same medium. Partial reflection and transmission at the interface of two media. Explanation of reflection and refraction on the basis of secondary wavelets and new wave fronts. Sin i1/Sin i2 = v1/v2.
  4. Superposition of waves; Interference in space due to two sources. Phenomenon of diffraction and its dependence. on the size of the slit or obstacle in comparison with l. Phenomenon of beats, beat frequency equals the difference of parent frequencies.
  5. Stationary wave: Bounded medium. stationary waves nodes and antinodes. characteristic frequencies of vibration of a bounded medium. Cases of string and air columns (excluding end correction etc.) Sonometer, Melde's Experiment. Resonance column and Kundt's tube.
  6. Doppler's Principles: Doppler effect due to the motion of the source and due to the motion of the observer.

Section 'D' General Properties of Matter

  1. Kinetic theory and ideal gases: Molecular agitation. Deduction of pressure of an ideal gas, Boyle's law. Kinetic theory concept of thermal equilibrium and temperature. perfect gas equation. Deviation from the ideal gas equation at high pressure and low temperature. concepts of finite size of, molecules and their mutual interactions. Distinction between gas and Critical temperature.
  2. Kinetic models of' liquids and solids : Intermolecular forces and potential energy curve. Molecular modes for the liquids and solids, Elementary explanation for thermal expansion. fusion. Vaporization. boiling and latent heats,
  3. Elasticity: Longitudinal strain. stress and modulus of elasticity. Explanation on the basis of atomic models of solids, Estimation of inter atomic force constant. Bulk modulus and rigidity (only elementary ideas).
  4. Surface tension: Surface tension. surface energy. Elementary explanation on the basis of inter molecular forces. Rise of liquid in a capillary tube.
  5. Flow of liquids: Ideal fluids. Bernoullis equation and its application. Viscous fluids. (elementary concepts only). Viscous force on a solid moving in a fluid. Stocke's principle (on derivation). terminal speed.

Section 'E': Heat

  1. Thermometry: Constant volume, gas thermometer, principles of Resistance thermometer Rt=Ro (1+at) and principle of thermocouple thermometers. Range of various thermometers, Brief explanation of various other principles used in thermometry, Total Radiation pyrometer and vapour pressure thermometer.
  2. First Law of Thermodynamics: Work done by a system=p dv definition of internal energy function U for the relation dU= dQ- pdv. First Law of thermodynamics, U a unique function of any state: distinction between Cp and Cv. Derivation of Cp-Cv=R for an ideal gas. General features of the function U. Transitional kinetic energy, enter molecular potential-energy .Internal rotation and vibration in poly-atomic molecules and lattice vibrations.
  3. Isothermal and Adiabatic process: Definitions. Isothermal elasticity of ideal gas. Adiabatic relationship PV=constant (no derivation) Adiabatic elasticity of an ideal gas.
  4. Thermal Conduction: Elementary concepts of isothermal surface and temperature gradient. Thermal conductivity and one dimensional heat flow in the steady state. Kinetic model of thermal conductivity (including. metals).

Section 'F': Light

  1. Refraction of spherical surfaces: Refraction at spherical surfaces. Derivation of the expression for u, v relationship for refraction at a single spherical surface and a thin lense. (Sign conventions of coordinate geometry to be followed) Newton's formula xx = -ff combination of lenses in contact power of a lens.
  2. Chromatic Aberration: Depressive power of a material Longitudinal chromatic aberration in a lens. Achromatic combination of two lenses in contact.
  3. Telescope and Microscope: Astronomical telescope, (reflecting and refracting types) magnifying power .Compound microscope, magnifying power (for normal eye only) .Mention resolving power for both instruments. Need of large aperture (objective) telescope and electron microscope (on description)
  4. Wave nature of light: Elementary observation of diffraction of light by a narrow single slit and interference of light by a double slit. Comparison with the corresponding, observations in a ripple tank. explanation of reflection of light and refraction of sound on the basis of the wave theory
    Expression V=c/n, Foucault's experiment for the measurement of the velocity of light in liquid and its historical significance. Analysis of Young's experiment, Fringe width, wave-length of light in various regions of white light. Elementary ideas of plane polarized light its production and deduction (pile of plates and polaroids).
  5. Spectrum. Formation of spectrum in a prism spectrometer, Minimum deviation and angular dispersion. Ultraviolet and infrared regions of the spectrum, Characteristics properties complete range of electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to gamma rays .
  6. Photometry: Luminous intensity of a light source at a point in particular direction Unit candela (cd). Definition of Lumen Lm=1 Cd sr .An isotropic source of luminous intensity of 1 Cd gives a tota1 flux of 4p 1m. Rating of a lamp is lumens, candela or watt.

Measurement of luminous efficiency Lumens watt. Illumination of a surface. unit Lux (Lx) defined as lumen/meter2 for illumination in terms of Inverse square law and cosine law. Brief introduction of luminous efficiencies illuminence etc. .for various practical cases.

Section 'G': Electricity

  1. Electric Field and Potential.: Coulomb's Law F= 1/(4peo)q1q2r2 where 1/(4peo)=9 x 109 Newton meter2 /coulomb2. Electric field and potential of a point charge. E1ectrtc field and potential at a point due to an electric dipole in longitudinal and transverse position (at large distance). Couple acting on a dipole placed in an Electric field. Electric field to a Sphere of uniform surface of automicity of electric charge.
  2. Capacity: Principle of a condenser capacity of an isolated sphere, spherical condenser and a parallel plate condenser .Effect of dielectric on the capacity, Series and parallel combination of condensers. Energy of a charged condenser 1/2cv2 ,its comparison with the energy' of stretched spring 1/2kx2
  3. Electric conduction: Electric current as a flow of charge carriers. 1Ampere=1coulomb/sec or 6.25 x 1018 electronic fundamental charge/sec. conduction in gases and solutions. Concept of ions Electrolysis, Faraday's Laws and electro chemical equivalent, Faraday's number. Free electrons in metals, carrier density n, drift velocity v and relaxation time t. Simple derivation of Ohm's law, Quantitative explanation of the variation of conductivity of normal conductors with temperature, Ohmic and non-Ohmic circuit elements. Dynamic resistance Dv/Di.
  4. Simple Circuits: Electric ce1I as a device which continuously drives charges round a circuit. Electromotive force of a characteristic of cell, defined as EME=W /Q (where W is work done in Carrying a charge around a closed circuit). Internal resistance of source (r). Internal potential drop (ir ) and power lost (i2r) Kirchoff's Laws: Series and parallel combination of resistances, Principle of Wheat stone's bridge, example of meter Potential divider .Potentiometer.

Sections 'H': Electromagnetism

  1. Moving charges and magnetic field: Similarities in the behaviour of bar magnet and solenoidal Current, measurement of a magnetic field on the basis of force on a linear current FaBL sinq force on a moving charge in a magnetic field FquB sinq (Lorentz Force) , Relation between these two expressions. Force acting between two parallel linear current Fai1i2L/r. Its interpretations on the basis of magnetic field. Definition of Ampere using the expression F=2x10-7i1i2 L/r and definition of the unit of B using the expression F=iBLsinq . Magnetic field at the centre of circular coil and inside a long solenoid (no derivation). Principle of moving coil galvanometer its conversion into Ammeter and Voltmeter, Principle of D.C, motor .
  2. Magnetism: Couple acting on a bar magnet placed in a magnetic field. Idea of magnetic dipole. Definition of magnetic moment on the basis of couple acting in a magnetic field. Electromagnet Atomic model of magnetic: Some Atoms have non- zero moment and their alignment. gives rise to microscopic magnetism, magnetic field due to a small bar magnet in longitudinal and transverse positions (2m/d3 and m/d3respectively). Component of earth's magnetic field, theories regarding its origin.
  3. Electromagnetic Induction: Magnetic flux. Its unit Weber .
    1 Weber= 1 Newton meter 1/Ampere. Faraday's Law of electromagnetic induction e=-df/dt. Interpretation of induced e.m.f. in terms of Lorentz force. Principle of A. C. and D.C. dynamos. Back emf in a motor, definition of self inductance e=-Ldt/dt. Dependence of L on the core material. Graphical description of rise and decay of current in an inductive circuit (no derivation). Definition of mutual inductance (e2=-di/dt) and its dependence on the core material. Theory of transformers (qualitative). Microphone (moging coil and carbon type) moving coil loud speakers. .
  4. Alternating Current Circuits: Graphical representation of voltage and current as a function of time, phase difference between V and I, the value of the ratio of Vo/I3 depends on frequency and the impedence Z for a circuit containing only R and L, Z2=R2+W2L2 and tan A=WL/R (no derivation). Root means square value Vo/-/2 and Io/-/2 power =(1/2)V0I0 cosq choke coil, wattless current Oscillation in an L.C. circuit (statement only), Frequency of an L.C. circuit, f=(l/2p)-/LC Analogy With the oscillation of a mass attached to a spring.

Section 'I': Electron Physics

  1. Diode and triode: Emission of electron from metals on heating, Rectifying action of diode. Triodes and its static mutual characteristics. Triode as an amplifier .
  2. Cathode rays and Positive rays: Cathode rays as stream particles, determination of e/m particles (using simultaneous electric and magnetic field) .Discovery of the electron. Cathode rays oscilloscope ( elementary working principle only) e/m of positive rays, ion isotopes.
  3. Photoelectric effect: Photoelectric phenomenon, threshold frequency Ek is independent of the light intensity Empirical relation Ek=AV.B) where B depends on the cathode surface and A. is a universal constant. Einstein's explanation of photoelectric effect, A=Planck's constant h and B=the work function W, photo-electric cell.

Section 'J': Radiation and Atomic Physics

  1. Radiation: Similarity between the nature of radian energy and light. Absorptive emissivity of surface, Kirchoff's law, concept of black body, Stefan's law, graphical description of spectral distribution of black body radiation (no formulae elementary ideas of Planck's hypothesis).
  2. Structure of Atom: Rutherford's experiments on a particle scattering and his conclusion regarding (i) positively charged nucleus and (ii) applicability of Coulomb's law
  3. Origin of spectrum: experiments of Franck and Hertz guantized energy states of atoms. Energy level diagram, Emission and absorption spectrum. Spectral series of Hydrogen atom. Continuous line and band spectra: their relationship with the state of matter .Fraunhoffer lines their explanation. Fluorescence and Phosphorescence.
  4. X-ray: Production (Coolidge tube) control on their intensity and penetration. Electromagnetic nature of X-rays

Section 'K': Nuclear Physics

  1. Radioactivity: Nature of a, b and g rays, Concept of half life. Statistical nature of the phenomenon of radioactivity, Scintillation screen and cloud chamber respectively for counting and tracking the charged particles (only general features including path tracing by a magnetic field). Composition of nucleus. Fundamental particles e, n, p, v, p and their anti-particle.
  2. Nuclear energy: Nuclear fission. mass defect. mass energy relation DE=C2Dm. Unification of the principles of conservation of mass and conservation of energy , Principle of Nuclear reactor . Elementary ideas of nuclear fusion. origin of solar energy


Section 'A': General Chemistry

  1. Discovery and properties of electron-proton and neutron.: Elementary ideas of Binding Energy of nucleus. Electronic configuration, electronic shells, sub shells, quantum number Pauli's exclusion principle.
  2. Detailed study of electrovalence, covalence and coordinate valence bonds and electronic structure of compounds
  3. Radioactivity. Natural and artificial disintegration , Half-life fission. and fusion, isotopes and isobars. Radioactive Isotope and their uses.
  4. Electrode potential and electrochemical series.
  5. Oxidation and reduction reaction. oxidation number balancing of equations by oxidation number and electron method.
  6. Numerical problems on chemical equations and volumetric analysis and qualitative analysis.

Section 'B': Inorganic Chemistry

  1. Detailed study of Mandeleef's periodic table (leaving historical background), position of elements in the periodic table on the basis of atomic structure; Modern periodic table.
  2. Position of following elements in the periodic table on the basis of electronic configuration;
    (a) Sodium and Potassium.
    (b) Magnesium Calcium Strantium and Barium.
    (c) Carbon and Lead
    (d) Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Arsenic, Antimony and Bismuth.
    (e) Halogens ( Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine)
    (f) Copper and silver .
    (g) Zinc and Mercury .
    (h) Inert gases.
  3. Laboratory methods of preparation and properties of the following: Outline Industrial preparation and structure of Hydrogen peroxide, Ozone, Ammonia, Nitrous oxide, Nitrous acid, Nitric acid, Phosphorous, Ortho phosphoric acid, Chlorine, Bromine,. Iodine, Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Hydroxide, Bleaching Powder and Sulphuric acid.
  4. Methods of preparation and Industrial production of the following and their uses: Deuterium Heavy Water, Fuel gases (Oil gas, water gas, Coal gas and Petrol gas). Cement, Nitrogenous and phosphate fertilizers.
  5. Ores (Oxides, Carbonates, Sulphide and Chlorides) their concentration and Furnace in extraction of metals including electric furnace.
  6. Metallurgy of Copper, Silver, Aluminium and Iron.
  7. General methods of preparation of Carbonates, Oxides Nitrates, Sulphates and Chlorides of metals.
  8. Methods of preparation of the following. their properties and uses:
    Cuprous chloride, Silver nitrate, Plaster of paris, calomel Corrosive, sublimate, zinc chloride. Anhydrous aluminium chloride, Alum, Zinc oxide. White lead, Red lead, Basic lead, acetate, Stanous chloride, Arsenious oxide, Ferric chloride and Microcosmic salt.

Section 'C: Physical Chemistry

  1. Chemical Kinetics: Law of Mass action, Velocity constant and Equilibrium constant (only in homogeneous gas system). Qualitative incorporation. Lechatelier's principle .
  2. Principle of electrolytic dissociation: Ostwald's dilution Law. Quantity of dissociation. dissociation constant, Hydrolysis, Neutralisatlon. Strength of acids and bases, pH, Buffer solution, Qualitative description of acid base indicators. solubility product common effect (leaving the determination of constants).
  3. Different methods to represent the concentration of Solutlon. Lowering of vapour pressure by mixing a solute. Osmosis and determination of Osmotic pressure by Berkeley and Herteley's method determination of molecular weight of nonvolatile substances by the elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point (leaving the derivation of formulae) .
  4. Distribution of a solute in the non-mixing liquid (leaving association. dissociation and complexing agents).
  5. Catalyst: Properties. homogeneous and heterogeneous Catalyst. Intermediate theory and modem Absorption theory . Enzyme Catalyst.
  6. Colloids: Definition. Colloids of various kinds preparation of colloids by the methods based upon condensation and dispersion. methods of reparation of arsenious sulphide and gold sol, Brownian motion. simple application of Colloids

Section 'D: Organic Chemistry

  1. Simple methods of purification of organic compounds: Fractional crystallization, Fractional distillation, steam distillation and vacuum distillation, Chromatography, Criteria of purity mixed melting points. determination of melting points and boiling points.
  2. Quantitative determination of carbon. hydrogen. nitrogen. halogens and sulphur ..
  3. Isomerism: structural (chain. position, functional and metamerism). Stereoisomerism (optical isomerism of lactic acid)
  4. Simple examples of addition of halogens and hydrogen halides and their mechanism, climination reactions (dehydrogenation and dehydration) .homolytic and heterolytic fission of bonds.
  5. Classification and detailed nomenclature of organic compounds. IUPAC method
  6. (i) Aliphatic hydrocarbons :
    (a) General preparation and properties of alkanes.
    (b) General preparation and properties of alkense.
    (c) alkynes Industrial preparation of acetylene:
    (d) Elementary ideas about the formation of high polymers based upon ethylene. butadiene and styrene.
    (e) Source of hydrocarbons. petroleum. synthetic petrol. octane number of cracking fuels.
    (ii) Alkyl Halides: General methods of preparation of monohalogen derivative of alkanes. and its importance in organic synthesis. Trihalogen derivatives-General methods of preparation and properties of Chloroform.
    (iii) Ethers: Laboratory preparation and properties and uses of diethyl ether .
    (iv) Alcohol General methods of preparation and properties of monohydric alcohols; manufacture of methanol. and ethanal. (Fermentation and Enzyme action). simple properties of glyceral.
    (v) General methods of preparation, comparative study and General properties of aldehydes and ketones. Laboratory preparation and uses of formaldehyde. acetal dehyde and acetone. Polymerisation and condensation.
    (vi) Carboxylic acid: Laboratory preparation and properties of formic acid. manufacture and properties of acetic acid simple properties of oxalic acid .
    (vii) Derivatives of carboxylic acid:
    (a) Laboratory preparation. properties and uses of acetylchloride .
    (b) Methods of preparation. properties and uses of acetic anhydride.
    (c) Method of preparation. properties and uses of acetamide.
    (d) Urea: Method of preparation (ammoniacal or Potassium cyanate method) and properties.
    (e) Esters: Laboratory preparation and properties of ethylacetate. oils fats. soaps and waxes.
    (f) Amines: Laboratory preparation and properties of ethylamine.
  7. Carbohydrates: Distinction tests of Mono, di and Poly- sacharides, general reactions of glucose.
  8. Our food and its constitution: carbohydrates, proteins fats and vitamins.
  9. Aromatic Compounds:
    (a) Hydrocarbons. Coaltar distillation, Comparative study of reaction of Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons.
    (b) Outline of benzene structure.
    (c) Laboratory preparation. important properties and uses of the following: Benzene. Toluene. Benzene-sulphonic acid. chloroben-zene. Phenol. Benzaldehyde. Benzoic acid. Nitrobenzene. Aniline


Section. A .: General

  1. The Cell: As a unit of structure and function. fine structure of cell components as seen in electron microscope, mitochondria. plastids, centrosome, losome. microsome, endoplasma reticulum. ribosome, nucleus and nuclear membrane. Reference to DNA and ,RNA, plasma membranes and cell wall.
  2. (a) Protoplasm: A highly complex organization. its constituents. Physical and chemical properties.
    (b) Non-protoplasmic cell Inclusions and their significance.
  3. Cell formation: Free cell formation. amitosis. somatic mitosis. duplication of DNA and its transfer to daughter cells. significance of mitosis. Process of meiosis and its relation to life cycle. Difference in cell divisions between animal cell and plant cell.
  4. Ecology:
    (a) Its meaning. ecological factors (climatic. physiographic. edaphic and biotic).
    (b) Elementary idea of Ecosystem. Its meaning and structure (abiotic and biotic components.. e.g., minerals and gases dissolved in water, producers. consumers. decomposers) pond and forest ecosystem.
    (c} Food Chain: Food web and food pyramids. Man in the ecosystem.
    (d) Elementary idea of Environmental pollution: Its causes and control. Kinds of pollution- Household detergents. sewage. chemicals from industry. automobile exhausts. nuclear fission. radioactive substances, smoke. sound and pesticides.
    (e) Soil-conservation.
  5. Heredity: Its meaning, Medalism. Mendal's experiments and Laws of Inheritance

Section 'B': Typical and Specific Studies

  1. A modem classification of plant kingdom
  2. Sporogenesis: formation of micro and megaspores.
  3. Detailed study of life history of angiospermic plant upto seed formation.
  4. Fruits
  5. Dispersal of fruits and seeds.
  6. Cell differentiation: Plant tissues. classification of meristematic and permanent tissue systems.
  7. Histology of typical root. stem and leaf. differences between Dicot and Monocot stems. Normal secondary growth in root and stems. Basic idea of interstructure of ecological types {Hydrophytes. Xerophytes and Mesophytes).
  8. Systematic study of representative types from the important phyla occurrence. structure and life history of the following:
    {a) Algae: Elementary knowledge (General characters and uses). detailed study of Ulothrix and Spirogyrar.
    (b) Bacteria: Structure. modes of nutrition. reproduction and economic importance.
    {c) Fungi: Abroad outline of fungi and detailed study of Rhizopus and Yeast. their economic importance .
    {d} Bryophyta : A broad outline of Bryophytes and their economic importance. Detailed study of Moss, e.g.,Funaria.
    {e) Pteriodophyta : A broad outline of pteridophytes. detailed study of Ferns,e.g., Pteries of Dryopteries.
    (f) Gymnosperms: General account and out line of life cycle of Cycas.
  9. Broad classification of Angiosperms: Description, identification and economic importance of the following families:
    Cruciferae. Malvaceae. Leguminasae. Solanaceae. Compositae. Cucurbitaceae and Liliaceae.
  10. {a) Composition of Plant ash. inorganic nutrients in soil water. absorption by root haris. osmosis conduction. root pressure.
    (b) Nitrogen cycle.
    {c) Special modes of nutrition in plants {Autotrophic. saprophytic. symbiotic. insectivorous) and their ecological relationship.
  11. Photosynthesis: Chloroplast. role of light. chlorophyll and Carbon dioxide. Mechanism of photosynthesis. Formation and role of ATP .Significance of photosynthesis and photosynthesis products.
  12. Transpiration: Factors and significance. mechanism of opening and closing of stomata.
  13. Translocation and storage of food.
  14. Respiration: Aerobic and anaerobic. major stages in the mechanism of respiration {Elementary knowledge of Glycolysis and Krebs Cycle) process of fermentation and its economic importance.
  15. Growth and Movements: Definition of growth measurements. chief types of movements in plants. Hormones and their role in growth.


Section 'A': General

  1. Origin of life: Oparin's theory Miller's experiment. Place of virus in the process of life's origin.
  2. Organic evolution: Basic idea of evolution, evidences of evolution. Theories of evolution. (Lamarckism & Darwinism).
  3. Mechanism of Evolution: Definition, causes and types of variation: Mutation (Theory of Hugo pe Vries only)
  4. (a) A broad outline of the course of evolution through the ages (both plant and animals: taken side by side).
    (b) Evolution of Man : Prehistoric man with reference to the Characteristics of Java ape man, Peking man, Neanderthal man and Cromagnun man.
  5. Eugenics: Sex determination, sex linked characters, Genetic traits in man (with reference to blood group) subsidization of superior student (I.Q.)
  6. Animals physiology:
    (a) Metabolism: General idea, Repair and regeneration of tissues.
    (b) Digestion: Food, Digestive enzymes, digestion and assimilation (giving reference to rabbit and comparing with man).
    (c) Excretion: Chemical nature of excretory products; Role of liver and kidney with reference to rabbit.
    (d) Respiration: Respiratory mechanism in rabbit, Cellular respiration, Role of mitochondria, (A.T;P. and A.D.P),
    (e) Nervous system (with special reference to rabbit). Reflex action. Inter neuronic transmission of impulses (Electrochemical phenomenon) .Autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and paraympathetic) nervous control of visceral organs.
    (f) Endocrine system with reference to human endocrine glands: Hormones and their functions

Section 'B': Type Study

1. A modem classification of animal kingdom, Main characters of phyla and classes with examples .
2. Animal tissues (histology)


(a) Amoeba: Morphology .Physiology .Reproduction. Behaviour . Osmoregulation and Locomotion (to be emphasised) Structure of Entamoeba histolytica and prevention of diseases caused by it.
{b} Plasmodium: History .life cycle. therapy and control of malaria.
4. Porifera: Anatomy and Physiology of a simple sponge {Leucosolenia Ascon type} .Economic importance of sponges. sponge industry .
5. Coelentereta: HYDRA-Morphology. Physiology. Behaviour. Regeneration. Grafting and Development. Physiological division of labour and correlated histological differentiation.
6. Aschelminthes: ASCARIS-Morphology {External features and anatomy}. .Life history. therapy and control.
7. Annelida: PHERETIMAPOSTHUMA- Morphology (External features and Anatomy) Bionomics. Economic. significance.
8. Arthropoda:
(a} Cockroach: periplanata Americana: Morphology {External features and Anatomy}. Difference between Pertplanata and Blatta.
{b} Morphorogy and life history of housefly and mosquito .
{c} Economic importance of insects.
9. {a} Rana Tigrina: skull. cranial and Spinal nerves: Gametogenesis. Fertilization and Development. The three primary germ layers. and their fate. metamorphosis.
{b} Rabbit: Reproduction System {excluding embryonic development}. Osteology .Anatomy and Histology .


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