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IGNOU Guess > Education > Entrance Exams > Medical Entrance > Delhi Pre - Medical Test

Delhi Pre - Medical Test

Physics | Chemistry | Botany | Zoology

Physics

Measurement

Dimension and dimensional equations of mechanical quantities; area, volume, velocity , acceleration, momentum, moment, energy and work.

Motion

Displacement as a vector quantity, vectors, addition and subtraction of vectors, scalar (dot) and (cross) product. Newton's first law, conservation of energy and momentum, collisions, kinematics. Newton's second law and definition of force, inertial and gravitational mass: Impulse, equations of motion, projectiles, work, relation between work and energy, power', Newton's third law, friction: sliding and rolling friction.

Circular Motion

Motion of a body in a circular orbit, centripetal force, planetary motion, statement of Kepler's laws, Newton's law of gravitation, earth's satellites; orbital and escape velocity, rigid body rotation, moment of inertia, definition and the expressions for a ring and a circular disc, torque, angular momentum and conservation of angular momentum.

Wave Motion

Simple harmonic motion, waves and waves propagation in matter, characterisation of wave motion (including phase) coherence, graphical and analytical description in terms of periodicity in time and spare. superposition of waves, longitudinal and transverse waves, stationary waves and beats, water waves and light waves, reflection, refraction, dispersion, polarization (experimental description, only), interference and diffraction, Doppler's effect, wave in strings and solids, elements of acoustics of building. Free/damped and forced oscillations.

Optics

Huygen's construction (geometrical) Young's double slit experiment (idea of path difference), Liyod's mirror, colour of thin films (qualitative single slit diffraction, applications of laser beams, spectrometer, production of different types of spectral lines- continuous and absorption.

Kinetic Theory of Gases

Basic assumptions, derivation of expression for pressure, temperature, translation degree of freedom, mean energy , gas equation, specific heats of gases, relation between Cp and Cv' (Cp- Cv = R/J).

Physics of the atom

Electrons, cathode rays, Rutherford's scattering experiment and its consequences; Bohr's model of atom, his postulates, origin of spectra, spectrum of hydrogen atom, electronic configuration of the atoms. X-rays, their production and properties, X-rays spectra, its characteristics and explanations.

Photoelectric effect: laws of photoelectric emission, dual nature of radiation and matter, de Broglie's relation and its application (experimental evidence).

Thermodynamics

Work and heat, first law of T.D., reversible and irreversible process. Carnot Cycle, efficiency of Carnot engine, Second law of T .D . absolute scale of temperature. Refrigerators, Laws of radiation, emissive power, absorptive power , black -body radiation. Kirchhoff 's law, Stefen's law, Pyrometers, energy distribution of black body radiation. Wien's law.

Liquids

General ideas of intermolecular forces, nature of liquids, cohesion and adhesion, surface tension, surface energy , angle of contact, capillarity; types of flow-Iaminar and turbulent, Reynold's number, Bemoulli's equation and its applications, viscosity, Stoke's law, (derivation from dimensional analysis) and its applications.

Electricity

Electric current, thermal effect- Joule's law, thermoelectric effect, Seebeck effect, thermocouple and its use for temperature measurement, chemical effect, magnetic effect," Bio-Savart's law, moving coil galvanometer, moving charge in a magnetic field e/m by Thomson's method, cyclotron.

Electromagnetic Induction

Lenz's law, eddy current, Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction; rotating coil in a magnetic field, alternating current; transformers, long-distance transmission; dynamo and motors, phase relationship between voltage and current for pure resistance; self-inductance and mutual inductance, reactance, capacitance; and impedance (qualitative only); elementary idea of electromagnetic waves.

Solids

Structure of solids, crystalline and amorphous substances; idea of a lattice, cubic and hexagonal crystal, packing in crystals; binding in solids-ionic, covalent, Van der Waal and metallic, electrons in solids. Classification of metals, Semiconductors and insulators, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, and P-type Semiconductors.

Mechanical-elastic and plastic behaviours of solids, tensile stress. Young's modulus, elastic limit shear and bulk modulus, compression stress; thermal energy, specific heat, thermal expansion, thermal conductivity; electrical conductivity .

Nuclear Physics

Atomic nucleus: general idea of nuclear force, nuclear mass, binding energy , nuclear mass defect, nuclear reactions (symbolic representation), discovery of neutron; artificial radioactivity , radioisotopes, uses of tracers in medicine, industry and agriculture. Elementary ideas about fusion, energy released, chain reaction and controlled chain reaction: reactors and radiation hazards.

Electronic Devices

Thermionic emission, idea of work function, diode- non -linear device, construction and characteristics, diode, vacuum diode, its application in rectifier and detector; triode-construction and characteristics and vacuum triode.

Chemistry

Section A: General & Inorganic Chemistry

Structure of Atom

Bohr's Model of the hydrogen atom; Orbitals and quantum numbers; Electronic configuration of atoms (Aufbau principle). Dual nature of matter and radiation, de Broglie equation; Uncertainty principle; Pauli's exclusion principle; Many electron atoms.

Molecules and Chemical Bond

Ionic and Covalent bonds and general properties associated with the bonds. Valence Bond theory , Hybridisation; Shape of molecules having sp sp2 and sp3 hybridised bonds. Valence-Shell Electron- Repulsion Theory, electron negativity and polarity of bonds; hydrogen bond. Molecular orbital method. bond energy and bond distance.

Periodic Properties of Elements

Grouping of elements into families, Periodic Law. Electronic configuration of elements as the basis of periodic classification. General discussion of variation of properties such a~ valency , atomic size, ionisation energy, electron affinity , electro negativity and metallic character along periods and groups in the periodic table and diagonal relationships.

Chemistry of Elements and Compounds

Occurrence, isolation, chemical properties and use of nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, sulphur , flourine, chlorine, bromine and iodine.

Separation and uses of noble gases.

General characteristic properties (variable oxidation states, formation of complexes and formation of coloured compounds) of d- block elements with examples from 3rd transition elements.

Section B: Organic Chemistry

Introduction

A. Methods of purification of organic compounds. Chromatography (paper, thin. layer and column), fractional distillation and vacuum distillation. Nomenclature of organic compounds, Isomerism, Tetrahedral structure, hybridization, sigma and Pi bonds, Concept of delocalisation and resonance.

B. Methods of preparation, properties, structure and uses of the following classes of compounds:

  1. Hydrocarbons: Alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and Benzene.
  2. Alkyl and Aryl halides: Alkylene and alkylidene halides, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and chlorobenzene.
  3. Hydroxy derivatives: Monohydric alcohols and phenols, Glycerol, soaps and detergent.
  4. Ethers
  5. Aldehydes and ketones.
  6. Carboxylic acids, substituted acids and functional derivatives of acids: Acetic acid, chloroacetic acid, glycine, hydroxy acids, oxalic acid, acetyl chloride, acetic anhydride, acetamide and ethyl acetate.
  7. Nitrogen compounds, Cyanides and isocyanides, nitro- compounds, amines, (aliphatic and aromatic) and diaxonium salts.
    C. General nature of organic reaction mechanism: Types of bonds fission, homolytic and heterolytic, Types of reagents. electrophilic and nucleophilic. Inductive, electronic and mesomeric effects.
    Types of reactions: addition. substitution and elimination.
    Elementary explanations of: Halogenation in alkanes, substitution in benzene, addition and polymerisations in alkenes, substitution in alkyl halides, additional to C=O bond. aldol condensation. Electronic concept of acids and bases. Strength of acids, basicity of amines.

Section C: Physical Chemistery

State of Matter

Nature of intermolecular forces, kinetic energy and order of constituent species in gases, liquids and solids. Properties of gases, liquids, and solids. Kinetic theory of gases. Crystal types, crystal defects. Bragg's law and its applications to the determination of structure of solids.

Energetic

Exothermic and endothermic reactions, Intrinsic energy , enthalpy, Enthalpies of formation, combustion solution, neutralisation, reaction, fusion, sublimation and vaporization, Hess's law, Calorific value. Driving force of chemical reaction -free energy change. Concept of entropy (order and disorder) with examples to illustrate the concept of entropy and free energy.

Chemical Equilibrium

Law of mass action and its application to chemical equilibrium. Le Chatelier- Braun principle, factors influencing equilibrium, ionic equilibria in aqueous solution, solubility products, common ion effect, Modem concept of acids and bases, pH value, Hydrolysis of salts, buffer solutions.

Kinetics of Chemical Reactions

Rate of reaction, Factors determining the rate of reaction. (concentrations, nature of reactants, temperature, catalyst and radiations), Energy of activation, order of reaction, rate constant, half-life Periods, role of a catalyst in chemical reactions and enzyme catalysis

Solutions

Ideal and non-ideal solutions, Colligative properties of dilute solutions, osmotic pressure, elevation of boiling point, depression in freezing point. Calculation of molecular mass of the solute and degree of electrolytes from colligative property data.

Preparation and properties of colloidal solutions, Colloids in everyday life. Adsorption and its applications.

Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry

Composition of nucleus, stability of nucleus, Properties of B and rays, group displacement law, nuclear reactions and equations. Disintegration rate and disintegration constant. Some simple applications of radio-isotopes, Carbon dating.

Paper 2 Botany & Zoology

Botany

Anatomy and Physiology of Plants

Meristems: Plant growth and development.
Internal and external regulators of growth and development in plants. Internal structure of stem and secondary growth. Xylem and phloem, their cell elements and functions. Internal structure of dicot and monocot leaves: Photosynthesis, history , importance, factors and mechanism. Transport and storage of organic substances, stomatal mechanism, transpiration and respiration. Internal structure of dicot and monocot roots.

Absorption and cell-water relations. Macro-and micronutrients. Transport of water and minerals, tropic and turgor movements. Biological rhythms.

Systematic

Principles of classical and new systematic.
Binolnia1 nomenclature.
Familiarity with taxa.
Systems. Differences between artificial and natural systems.
Identification of local flora (up to families).

Man and Environment

Soil, rainfall and temperature with reference to natural resources.
Our natural resources- their uses and abuses.
Conservation of forest.
Environmental pollution, pollution of air/water, soil and preventive measures.
Radiation and chemical hazards and protection from them.

Cell Biology

Introduction: Cell theory. Cell as a unit of life. Tools and techniques of cell studies. Microscopy (use of microscope and calibration). Elements of microscope. Electron microscopy elementary knowledge of principles. Biomembrances - Transport mechanism, cellular respiration. Cell organelles their structure and functions. Enzymes, vitamins and hormones -their chemical and physical structure, mode of action, role in regulation of cellular activities. Nucleus chromosomes. DNA structure including events in replication and transcription.

  1. Discovery of the nucleus -its structure and importance in heredity
  2. Discovery of the chromosomes -their structures and role in heredity. Parallelism of behaviours between chromosomes and Mendelian factors, chromosome theory of heredity .
  3. Discovery and structure of DNA, its role in heredity . Replication of DNA, Genetic code, protein synthesis, Transcription, Codon assignments.

Genetics

Organisation of the heredity material in chromosomes. Equational division. Reduction division. Mitosis and meiosis compared and contrasted, Significance of meiosis. Mendel's law of inheritance. Discovery of linkage, sex-linked inheritance. Crossing- over, Stage at which crossing-over occurs. Neurospora genetics, Gene interactions and expression. Mutation. Discovery , types of mutations, mutations in diploids and haploids, physical and chemical mutagens, Role of mutations and evaluation. Role in agriculture. Elaboration of Mendel's laws of inheritance. Monohybrid or Dihybrid crosses.
Non-Mendelian inheritance. Reasons for the success of Mendel in his experiments. Absence of linkage in Mendel's experiments. Why did he not get linkage? Mendelism as the basis of genetics. Factor to genetic cistron, one gene, one enzyme and one cistron one polypeptide chain.
Quantitative inheritance. Continuous and discontinuous variation, examples of quantitative inheritance, e.g. .colour of wheat kernel. etc. Monogenic, vs., Polygenic inheritance.

Developmental Biology

Type of developments in non-flowering plants. Significance of life-cycles with special reference to alternation of generations as exemplified in Escherichia coli Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, Funaria, Selaginella and Pinus (No structural details).

Developmental, stages in angiosperms and their hormonal control, seed germination, juvenility, Flowering, sporogenesis and gametogenesis, Fertilization, seed, fruit development, Seed dormancy, vegetative propagation, Elements of tissue and organ culture, Differentiation. Concept of cellular totipotency .Control of organ formation, Abnormal growth in plants.

Botany and Human Welfare

  1. Agriculture: Man and domestication of plants,. important cultivated crops-cereals (wheat and rice) millets, pulses, (gram), fibres, oilseeds (groundnut), sugarcane, vegetables. fruits (mango and banana).
  2. Industry : Use of micro-organism, fermentation, alcohol, antibiotics -Vitamins-food-proteins, dairy products, cheese

Zoology

1. Histology: Microscopic structure of animal tissues. Histology of mammalian organs (stomach, intestine, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, pancreas and gonads).

2. Anatomy and Physiology with reference to frog and man).

  1. Skin : Microscopic structure, functions including role in thermo-regulation).
  2. Skeleton: Microscopic structure of bone and cartilage. General account of bones of frog and rabbit, types of joints, three types of levers, concept of antagonistic muscles.
  3. Digestive System: Structure of alimentary canal and associated glands. Structure of tooth, dentition in rabbit and man, digestive enzymes and their role in digestion, absorption of products of digestions, peristalsis, balanced diet, storage of food.
  4. Respiratory System: Structure of respiratory organs, mechanism of breathing, gaseous transport, tissue respiration.
  5. Circulatory System: Functions of blood and lymph. Microscopic structure of blood and blood vessels, structure and working of heart. distribution of arteries and veins. circulation of blood. blood coagulation and blood groups. Lymphatic system. lymph nodes. antibodies. Effect of muscular exercise on circulatory and respiratory system.
  6. Excretory System: Histology of kidney. structure and function of kidney tubules and arrangement of excretory organs.
  7. Nervous System: General account of brain, spinal cord and nerves. Histology of spinal cord. Reflex actions simple and conditioned sense organs.
  8. Endocrine Glands: A general account of hormones.
  9. Reproductive System: General arrangement of reproductive organs, histology of testis and ovary, menstrual cycle, reproductive hormones, fertilization, role of amnion and placenta

3. Developmental Biology: Basic features of development in animals. Types of eggs, fertilization, cleavage, blastula, gastrula.

Development of frog up to the formation of primary germ layers, tadpole and its adaptation, metamorphosis of tadpole .

Twins: Monozygotic arid dizygotic. Regeneration, Senescence and Ageing.

4. Diversity of Animal Life: principles of classification, binomial nomenclature. General classification of animal phyla up to classes (invertebrates) and up to subclasses/olders (vertebrates) with detailed study of the types as indicated.

  1. Protozoa, amoeba, Entamoeba Paramecium,malarial parasite, trypanosoma.
  2. Porifera.
  3. Coelentereta, Hydra.
  4. Plathyheiminthes, Taenia solium, T. saginata.
  5. Nematheminthes, Ascaris lumbricoides.
  6. Annelida, pheretima posthuma (general account and life-history .
  7. Arthropoda, Cockroach. Insects and diseases. life-histories of housefly and mosquito.
  8. Mollusea.
  9. Echinodermata.
  10. Cordata. General characters of fish. General study of frog (Rana tigrina). poisonous and non-poisonous snakes. General characters of birds. Nesting and parental care in common Indian birds.
    Detailed study of a mammals (rabbit or man)

5. Genetics and Evolution: Human genetics: Human chromosomes, sex determination. sex-linked inheritance, genetic disorders. Genetic counseling and genetic engineering, Mutation, Evidences and theories of organic evolution.

6. Biology Public Health: Communicable and non- communicable diseases, prevention and control of disease. growth and control of population.

7. Ecology: Physical and biological factors influencing organisms. Food chains, pyramid of numbers, biological equilibrium, Adaptation to physical and biotic environment (with special reference to desert and sea) Interspecific associations (Symbiosis. etc.)

 

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