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IGNOU Guess > Education > Entrance Exams > Medical Entrance > All India Pre - Medical / Pre - Dental Entrance Exam

All India Pre - Medical / Pre - Dental Entrance Exam

Physics | Chemistery | Zoology | Botany

Physics

Measurement: Dimension and dimensional equations of mechanical quantities. area, volume, velocity, acceleration, momentum, force, moment. energy and work.

Motion: Displacement. vectors, Newton's First Law, Conservation of Energy and Momentum, Kinematics, Newton's Second Law and definition of force, equations of motion. work, relation between work and energy power, Newton's Third Law, friction. sliding and rolling friction.

Circular Motion: Motion of a body in circular orbit. centripetal force, Newton's Law of gravitation, Earth's satellites, rigid body rotation. Momentum of Inertia, Torque.

Wave Motion: Simple harmonic motion. waves and waves propagation in matter. characterisation of wave motion (Including phase). coherence. graphical and ana1yticaI description in terms of periodicity in time and space. Superposition of waves. longitudinal and transverse waves, refraction, dispersion, interference.

Optics: Huygen's construction (geometrical), Young's double experiment (Idea of path difference).

Kinetic Theory of Gases: Basic assumptions, derivations and expressions for pressure, temperature, translation degree of freedom, mean energy, gas equation. specific heats of gases, relation between Cp and Cv Cp -Cv -R/J

Physics of the Atom: Bohr's model of atom. his postulates, origin of spectra. spectrum of hydrogen atom. electron configuration of the atoms. Photoelectric effect, laws of photoelectric emission.

Thermodynamics: Work and heat, first law of Thermodynamics.

Electricity: Electric current, thermal effect, Joule's law, chemical effect, magnetic effect, Boit-Savart's law, moving coil galvanometer, moving charge in a magnetic field.

Electro-Magnetic Induction: Lenze's law, 'eddy current, Faraday's law of electro-magnetic induction, self-inductance.

Solids: Structure of solids covalent, Van der waal and metallic, electrons in solids, classification of metals.

Nuclear Physics: Atomic nucleus, general idea of nuclear force, artificial radio-activity .

Electronic Devices: Thermionic emission, idea of work function, diode non-linear device, construction and characteristics, triode-construction and characteristics, Vacuum Triode

Chemistry

Section A : General & Inorganic Chemistry

Structure of Atom: Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom, Pauli's exclusion principle.

Molecule and Chemical Bond: Ionic and covalent bonds and general properties associated with the bonds, hybridization, shape of molecules having sp, sp2 and sp3 hybridised bonds, Electronegativity and polarity of bonds, hydrogen bonds.

Periodic Properties of Elements: Grouping of elements into families, periodic law, Electronic configuration of elements as the basis of periodic classification, General discussion of variation of properties such as valency , atomic size, ionisation energy , electron affinity , electronegativity and metallic character along periods and groups in the periodic table.

Chemistry of Elements and Compounds: Occurrence, isolation, chemical properties and use of nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, chlorine, bromine.

Section B: Organic Chemistry

Introduction:

  1. Nomenclature of organic-compounds, Iso- merism, Tetrahedral structure, hybridization, sigma and pi bonds.
  2. Methods of preparation, properties, structure and uses of the following classes of compounds:
    (i} Hydrocarbons, Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes, Benzene.
    (ii) Chloroform, Idoform, Carbon tetrachloride, Chlorobenzene,
    (iii) Hydroxy derivatives: phenols.
    (iv) Carboxylic acids, substituted acids.

Section C: Physical Chemistry

State of Matter: Nature of intermolecular forces, kinetic energy and order of constituent species in gases, liquids and solids, Properties of gases, liquids and solids, Kinetic theory of gases.

Energetics: Exothermic and endothermic reactions.

Chemical Equilibrium: Law of mass action and its application to chemical equilibrium, Le Chatelier- Braun principle, factors influencing equilibrium. Ionic equilibria in aqueous solution. solubility product, common ion effect. Modem concept of acids and bases, pH value.

Zoology

Histology: Microscopic structure of animal tissues, Histology of mammalian organs (stomach. intestine. liver, spleen. lungs, kidney . pancreas and gonads).

Anatomy and Physiology: (with reference to frog).

  1. Skin: Microscopic structure and its functions.
  2. Skeleton: Microscopic structure of bone and cartilage. General account of bones of frog.
  3. Digestive System: Structure of alimentary canal and associated glands. digestive enzymes and their role in digestion, absorption of products of digestion. peristalsis. balanced diet.
  4. Respiratory System: Structure of respiratory organs, mechanism of breathing, gaseous transport. tissue respiration.
  5. Circulatory System: Functions of blood and 1ymph. Microscopic structure of blood and blood vessels. Structures and working of heart, distribution of arteries and veins, circulation of blood coagulation. blood groups.
  6. Excretory System: Histology of kidney .structure and function of kidney tubules. arrangement of excretory organs.
  7. Nervous System :General account of brain, spinal cord and nerves. Histology of spinal cord. Reflex actions (simple and conditioned), Sense organs (eye and ear).

Reproductive System: General arrangement of reproductive organs, histology of testis and ovary.

Developmental Biology: Basic features of development in animals. Types of eggs. fertilisation cleavage. blastula.

Development of frog, up to the formation of primary germ layers, tadpole and its adaptation. metamorphosis of tadpole.

Diversity of Animal Life: Principles of Classification, binomial nomenclature. General classification of animal Phyla up to classes (invertebrates) and up to sub-classes/order (vertebrates), with detailed study of the types as indicated:

  1. Protozoa. Amoeba. Entamoeba, Paramecium. Malaria, Parasitic trypanosomes.
  2. Porifera.
  3. Coelenterata. Hydra.
  4. Platyhelminthes, Taenia solium, T. saginata.
  5. Nemathelminthes, Ascaris lumbricoides
  6. Annelida Pheretima posthuma (General account and life history).
  7. Arthropoda. Cockroach. Insects and diseases. Life histories of housefly and mosquitoes.
  8. Mollusca.
  9. Echinodermata.
  10. Chordata. General .characters of fishes. General study of frog (Rana tigrina), General characters of birds.

Genetics and Evolution (Fundamentals only): Human genetics -Human chromosomes. sex-determination. sex-linked inheritance. Evidences and theories of organic evolution.

Ecology: Physical and biological factors influencing organism Food chains. pyramids of numbers, biological equilibrium. Interspecific associations (symbiosis) .

Botany

Anatomy and Physiology of Plants: Meristems -Plant growth and development. Internal and external regulators of growth and development in plants: Internal structure of stem and secondary growth; Xylem and Phloem-their cell elements and functions: Internal structure of dicot and monocot leaves; photosynthesis. history .importance. factors and mechanism, stomatal mechanism. transpiration and respiration. Internal structure of dicot and monocot roots.

Absorption and cellwater relations, transport of water and minerals. tropic and turgor movements.

Systematics: Principles of classical and new systematics.

Binomial nomenclature .
Familiarity with taxa.

Systems: Difference between artificial and natural systems. identification of local flora (upto familites).

Man and Environment: Soil, rainfall and temperature with reference to natural resources.

Our natural resources -their uses and abuses.
Environmental pollution and preventive measures.

  1. Cell Biology-Elementary: Introduction: Cell theory: Cell as a unit of life. Tools and techniques of cell studies. Microscopy (use of microscope and calibration). .Elements of microscope. Biomembranes -Transport mechanism, cellular respiration. Cell organelles: their structure and functions. Hormones -their mode of action, Nucleus. chromosomes, DNA structure including events in replication and transcription. Discovery of the nucleus-its structure and importance in heredity.
  2. Discovery of chromosomes -their structure and role in heredity. Parallelism of behaviour between Mendelian factors, chromosome theory of heredity .
  3. Discovery and structure of DNA. its role in heredity. Replication of DNA, Genetic Code and protein synthesis. Transcription.

Genetics: Organisation of the heredity material in chromosomes. Equational division, Reduction division, Mitosis and Meiosis compared and contrasted significance of meiosis. Medel's laws of inheritance: Discovery of linkage, sex-linked inheritance. Crossing-over, stage at which crossing-over occurs: Neurospora genetics, Mutation, discovery, types of Mutation and Mutations in diploids. Role of mutations in evolution, Role in agriculture. Elaboration of Mendel's laws of inheritance: Monohybrid or Dyhybrid crosses.

Reasons for the success of Mendel in his experiments Absence of linkage in Menders experiments. Why did he not get linkage? Mendelism as the basis of genetics.

Development Biology: Significance of life-cycles with special reference to alternation of generations as exemplified in Escherichia .coli, chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, Funaria, Selaginellaand Pinus (No structural details).

Botany and Human Welfare: Man and domestication of plants, important cultivated crop: cereals (wheat & rice), millets, pulses (gram), fibres, oilseeds (groundnut), sugarcane, vegetables, fruits (mango and banana).

 

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